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Meaning “auspicious” or “good”) is a Hindu deity. He is one of the Trimurti (three special primary gods of the Hindus). The Shiva of Trimurti symbolizes destruction. According to the Shiva branch of Hinduism, Shiva is the supreme God. On the other hand, the Smriti community considers Shiva as one of the five gods (the five main deities of the Smriti Hindus).

The Hindus who worshiped Shiva as the main deity are known as “Saiva”. Vishnu-worshipers Shaivas like Vaisnava or Devi-worshipers are also one of the major branches of Hinduism.

Shiva is usually worshiped in the form of abstract Shivling. The meditative state (Nataraja idol) is more prevalent in his idol or in the back of Mysore. Shiva is the father of the other two major Hindu deities Ganesh and Kartik.

Etymology and other names

The Sanskrit Shiva (Devanagari: Shiva, śiva) is an adjective, meaning “auspicious, kind and noble”. As a nickname, the word means “good.” The word Rudra is used as a rather gentle name rather than a harsh word. As an adjective, the word Shiva is used as an expression of not only Rudra, but also of other Vedic deities. In the Rigveda, Indra uses this word in his own description in multiple places. (2: 21: 3, 4: 8, 9: 6: 9)

The term Sanskrit Shiva means “Shiva”. The term is used as the name of one of the major branches of Hinduism and the staunch supporters of that community.

In the Vishnu Sahasranama Stotra, Adi Shankara explains the multiple meanings of the word Shiva as Vishnu’s 27th and 5th names: “holy person”, “past the three qualities of nature (saints, rosas and thos)”, or “whose name is the pronunciation of which men are free from sin.” Swami Chinmananda in his Vishnu Sahasranama translation further elaborates the interpretation of the verse: The meaning of the word Shiva is that which is ever-holy or who is not touched by the guilt of Raj or Tama.

In the Vishnu Sahasranama Stotra, Adi Shankara explains the multiple meanings of the word Shiva as Vishnu’s 27th and 5th names: “holy person”, “past the three qualities of nature (saints, rosas and thos)”, or “whose name is the pronunciation of which men are free from sin”. Chinmayananda in his Vishnu Sahasranama translation further elaborates the interpretation of the verse: The meaning of Shiva is that which is ever-holy or who is defamed by the fault of Raj or Tama. Sita does not.

At least one text of Shiva Sahasranama Stotra containing the name of Shiva is found. The text contained in the discipline of the thirteenth episode of the Mahabharata is considered to be the essence of this section. In the Mahanayas a ten thousand names of Shiva are also found. Shiva has also been banished as Nana in the Shriudrama Shkam Stotra, known as the Century.

Historical evolution

Shiva worship is practiced throughout the Hindu communities of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Some historians think that the idea of ​​multiple religious communities has been integrated into a single image and given the modern form of Shiva. However, details of how Shiva’s characteristics are integrated into a single deity are not available. Axel Michaels goes on to explain the complex nature of Shaivism:

Like Vishnu, Shiva is also a high god. Religious views and communities have been named after him in the name of “Shaivism”. As with Vaishnavism, the word also implies a consensus that is not clearly seen in theology or in philosophical and spiritual doctrine. Moreover, it is the duty to keep religion and doctrine separate.

An example of such a combination can be seen in Maharashtra. There, the god of agriculture and livestock was a local deity named Khandoba. The main center of Khandoba in Maharashtra was Jejuri. The concept of Khandoba is exactly like Shiva’s. And he is worshiped in the form of sex. Of course, the morphological similarities of Khandoba with the Sun and Kartikeya can be observed.

Animals found in Mahenjodaro are sealed

During the excavation at Mahenjodaro, a seal was discovered, so that the engraved image attracted everyone’s attention as a possible portrait of “Adi-Shiva” (“proto-Shiva”). This statue, surrounded by suburban, possibly Ethiphilic, animals, is called Pashupati. Sir John Marshall and others saw the “Yoga Vangima” sitting on their knees in the film, claiming it to be the origin of Shiva.


In modern Hinduism, the Vedic deity Rudra has many similarities. In Hindu society, Rudra and Shiva are considered as one person. Rudra was the god of the storm with lightning; He was imagined as a terrible, destructive deity.

The oldest scripture in Hinduism is the Rigveda. Linguistic evidence suggests that the book was written between 3 and 4 BCE. The name Rudra is still used today as another name of Shiva. In the Rigveda (II.5) he is referred to as the “Father of the dead”; The Maruts are a group of Jhangsar gods. Also in the Rudrama Stotra found in the Rigveda and the Yajurveda, Rudra is banished in various respects as Shiva; This hymn is a very sacred hymn to Hindus. However, the word Shiva was also used as an adjective for Indra, Mitra and Agni.

However, the analogy of Shiva with the ancient deity Rudra is not universally recognized. As explained by Alex Michaels:

Rudra is also known as “Sharaba” (Sagittarius). One of the major weapons of the sea is Sagittarius. More. Who Sharma thinks that this name is also used as another name for Shiva in later languages. The origin of the word is from the Sanskrit word shawar, which means to strike or kill. More. Who According to Sharma’s explanation, the word means “one who is capable of killing the forces of darkness”. Shiva’s other two names are dhanbari (“archer”) and archer (“archer”, literally “archer”).

Relationship with other Vedic deities

The Hindu deity was associated with the Vedic deities, such as Agni, Indra, Prajapati, and Vayu, who were active behind the rise of Shiva as a major deity.


The relationship of fire with Rudra is very close. In Vedic literature, the mutual embodiment of Agni and Rudra is an important factor in the evolution of Rudra-Rudra-Shiva. It is written, “Agni is also called Rudra”. The relationship between the two gods is extremely complex.

According to Stella Kramrick:

The adjectives “Scepanjar” (“amethyst like a golden flame”) and “Tibisimati” (“flame of flame”) on the centenary stage indicate the analogy of Rudra and Agni. The horn of fire is imagined like a bull.

In medieval sculpture, both fire and Bhairava Shiva – both of which are free-headed like a fire.


In many places in the Rigveda, the word Shiva has been used as the root of Indra (2.25.1, 5.3.1, and 5.7.1.

[Edit] Appearance

Shiva and Parvati. Shiva is here in Trinidadan, half-mooned in head, dressed in a serpent and hellish garland; The Ganges flows from his roots.


An important feature of Shiva is his third Nayan. With this Nayan, Shiva consumed Kama. In the different scriptures, there is a disagreement with the true meaning of the name Tambarakam (Sanskrit: ताराबाकम) found in Shiva. In the Mahabharata, Shiva is conceived as a Trinitarian; So the name literally means “third bearer”. Although in Vedic Sanskrit, the word amba or ambika means mother; Based on this ancient meaning, the name Trombakam literally means, the child of three wives. Max Mueller and Arthur McDonnell also capture the last meaning of the word. However, there is no circulation of the story of Shiva’s three mothers. So e Washburn Hopkins thinks the trio has nothing to do with the name; Rather, it is related to the three mothers known as Ambika. Another meaning of the word is “one whose three wives or sisters are present”. Some think that the word came from Rudra as a result of Shiva’s analogy. Because Rudra has a relationship with Goddess Ambika.

Half-moon: A half-moon rests on Shiva’s head. For this reason, the other name of Shiva is Chandrasekhar (Sanskrit: चंद्रशाकर). This characteristic of Ardachandra Shiva has been a feature of Rudra since the early age of Rudra-Shiva. It is likely that this feature originated in the literature of Vedic and later sources of the unification of Chandra Deva Som and Rudra.

Vibhuti: Shiva consumes all of his Vibhuti or Bhasma. Some forms of Shiva like Bhairab etc. are associated with ancient Indian cremation philosophy. Some groups not affiliated with conservative Brahmanism perform homage according to this view. The Pali scriptures of Theravath Buddhism also mention this cremation. Because of this, the other name of Shiva is the cremation ground and the Vibhutibhushan.

Jatajut: The hair of Shiva’s head is tied. For this reason, Shiva’s other name is Jotiba Kapardi (“haired or curly”).

Nilkantha: Drinking the poison of poison that was raised during the cruise of the sea, Kareshiv became known as Nilkantha (Sanskrit: नील काठ). On the other hand, as described in the Harivasan Purana, Vishnu once hit the throat of Shiva. Shiva was able to escape. But his voice turns blue.

Shiva is holding him in a jata while landing on the Ganges statue; In front of Parvati, Nandi and Bhagirath, Hindi manuscript image of Saint Narayan, 1 AD.

Holy Ganga: According to Hindu belief, the source of the river Ganga is Shiva’s Jata. This is why Shiva’s other name is Gangadhar.

Tiger leather: Shiva’s dress is tiger or tiger. This is why Shiva’s other name is Krittibas. Shiva is also seated on the seat of the tiger. It is to be noted that the seat of tigercham was a special honor reserved for the Brahmacharis of ancient India.

Snake: A snake is always adorned in the neck of Shiva.

Trishul: Shiva’s weapon is Trishul.

Damaru: In the hands of Shiva, a musical instrument called Damaru is found. This is a prominent aspect of the Shiva dancing idol known as Nataraja. A coin or a gesture specific to the waistline is known as the damaruhst. Damaru is also used as a symbol of the Kapalik community.

Nandi: A legendary bull named Nandi is the vehicle of Shiva. Shiva is considered as the god of animals. Hence his other name is Pashupati (Sanskrit: Pashupati). More. Who According to Sharma, the word Pashupati means “god of the beast”. On the other hand, Kramaric has named this name as the root of ancient Rudra, meaning “god of animals”.

Mass: The followers of Shiva are called Ganas. Their residence is also Kailas. They are also called demons according to their physical nature. They are usually kind. When their Lord was angry for some reason, they went to the Lord to perish. Shiva nominates his son Ganesh as their leader. This is why Ganesh is called Ganapati.

Kailas: According to Hindu belief, Shiva’s residence is on Mount Kailas in the Himalayas. According to Hindu mythology, the mountain of the Lingala Kailas is at the center of the universe.

Varanasi: Varanasi is the favorite city of Shiva. This city is one of the sacred pilgrimages of the Hindus. This city is known as Kashidham in Hindu scriptures.


According to Gavin Fludd, “Shiva is a god of ambiguity and opposition”; Because his characteristics are in many respects contradictory. This two-dimensional entity can be found in the various names of Shiva and the various stories about him.

Destroyers and good beings

In the Yajurveda, Shiva mentions two contradictory entities. Here on one hand he is as cruel and fearful (Rudra); On the other hand so kind and good (Shiva). For this reason, Chakraborty thinks, “All the basic elements that gave birth to the complex Rudra-Shiva community are contained in this book.” In the Mahabharata, Shiva is also collectively awarded “the symbol of vanity, greatness and fear,” and with honor, joy and greatness. Shiva’s various names refer to his opposition to this evil and good being.

The name Rudra (Sanskrit: गुर) is a symbol of Shiva’s terrible entity. According to the traditional etymological explanation, the root word for the word rudra is rud-, which means to cry or shout. Stella Kramerick, however, has explained a different etymology. This interpretation is related to the word adjective rudra, which means wild or rude. According to this interpretation, he means the name Rudra, who is a wild or fierce deity. According to this etymology, R. Who Sharma Rudra’s words mean terrific. The name of Shiva’s Hor (Sanskrit: ह) is mentioned three times in the Shiva Sahasranam Stotra under the discipline of the Mahabharata. It is a very important name of Shiva. The name is mentioned three times in the discipline in a completely different sense. More. Who Sharma means “whoever captures”, “who does one” and “who destroys” in these three references. The other two horrible forms of Shiva are “Kala” (Sanskrit: काल) and “Mahakal” (Sanskrit: Mahakal). In these two forms, Shiva destroys all creations. Another form of Shiva associated with destruction is Bhairab (Sanskrit: भैरव). The word “bhairab” also means “terrible”.

On the other hand, the name of Shiva Shankar (Sanskrit: शंकर) means “goodness” or “pleasant”. This name signifies the merciful form of Shiva. The Vedantic philosopher Adi Shankara (8-12 AD) took the name as the name of the monk’s life and became known as Shankaracharya. This name also signifies the merciful form of Shiva.

The Yogi and the Gharti Saints

Family lord Shiva; Shiva along with his wife Parvati and sons Ganesh and Kartikeya.

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Shiva is conceived as a yogi and a ghari. Yogi is contemplating the image of Shiva. In terms of his relationship with yoga, he was called Mahayogi. In the Vedic religion, the importance of yajna was emphasized, but in the epic age, penance, yoga and torture began to gain greater importance. So Shiva’s imagination emerged relatively later in the yogis.

As a householder, she is the husband of Parvati and father of two sons Ganesh and Kartikeya. Parvati or Uma was also called Umapati, Umakant and Umaadhva as his wife. Parvati, the wife of Shiva, is a cosmic force. Shiva loves and respects his wife as a housewife.

Shiva and Parvati’s two sons – Kartikeya and Ganesh. The worship of Kartikeya in the name of Subrahmanya, Yammukhan, Swaminathan and Murugan is very common in South India; In northern India he is best known as Skanda, Kumar and Kartikeya. Shiva’s wife is considered to be his source of strength.


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Nataraja (Tamil: 1) The statue of Shiva is very popular. Names of Shiva’s dancers and dancers are available in the name of Shiva Sahasranama. Shiva’s association with dance and music has existed since ancient times. All over India, especially in Tamil Nadu, along with Nataraja, various dancing idols of Shiva, called Nrityamurti, are found all over India. The names of the two dances associated with Shiva are Tandav and Lassi. Tandava destructive and masculine dance; Shiva kal-mahakal dances for the destruction of the world [and the sweet and fine choreography; This emotional dance is conceived as a dance of Parvati. Lassia is considered a feminine alternative to infertility. Tandava and lasya dances are associated with destruction and creation respectively.

Southern statue

Dakshinamurthy (Sanskrit: Dakshinamurthy) is a prominent form of Shiva. Literally, the word south sign means south face. In this form Shiva is the teacher of yoga, music and scholar and interpreter of scriptures. This statue of Shiva is prevalent mainly in Tamil Nadu. Dakshinamurti Shiva occupies the tomb and is surrounded by Jnanpipasu sages.

Death knell:—

The word “deathjaya” literally means “the one who conquers death”. It is said that Shiva conquered the god of death Yama. According to a legend, Rishi Markandeya had a death sentence at the age of sixteen. Markandeya worshiped Shiva. When death came, he begged Shiva for life. Shiva defeats Yama and gives life to Markandeya.


Shiva is half male and half female. Another name for this variant is “third nature”. According to Alan Goldberg, the Sanskrit half-hearted word means that the deity is half a woman; Half men are not half women. In Hindu philosophy, this form of interpretation is said to be the holy power of the world, the power of men and women together.


According to a myth, Shiva demolished three fortresses of Asuras called Tripura. For this reason, Shiva’s other name is Tripurantaka (Sanskrit: ट्रिपुरंतक).

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There is also a philosophical explanation of this name of Shiva. Scholars believe that there are three types of human body – the gross body or the external body, the subtle body or the mind, and the causal form of the body or soul. These three bodies together are called Tripur. In the Tripurantaka, Shiva helps human beings to become absorbed with the Supreme Being by destroying and eliminating this trivial existence of human beings. In this way, he destroys the Maya and the ignorant and merges with the human consciousness.


The eight special forms of Shiva are called as the eighties. These are: Bhava (existence), Sharava (archer), Rudra (who gives pain and suffering), Pashupati (herd), fierce (fearful), Mahan or Mahadev (supreme soul), Bhima (superpower) and Ishaan (director of the universe). ).


Apart from the anthropomorphic idol, the worship of Shiva in the form of Shibling or Linga is also considered very important. The word Shiva means goodness and Linga means symbol; For this reason, the word Shivling means the universal cosmopolitan. Another meaning of the word Shiva is that in which the world sleeps after the cataclysm; And the meaning of the word gender is the same – where after the catastrophe, all created things disappear. Because in Hinduism, the creation, protection and destruction of the world is done by the same God, therefore, Shivlinga itself becomes a symbol of God. Some researchers, such as Monier-Williams and Wendy Doniger, consider Shivling a symbolic symbol. Although Christopher Iserhood, Swami Vivekananda, Swami Shivananda, O.S. N. Experts in Balgangadhar have disputed this view.

In the Atharvaveda Samhita, the first Shiva-Linga worship is known in the form of a sacrificial pillar called Jupastambha. The original and endless pillars or columns of this psalm are described. This pillar is placed in the place of the eternal Brahman. From the concept of the fire of fire, smoke, ash, Mona climber, and bull of the sacrificial bull, one can get an idea of ​​Shiva’s bright body, his jatal, sapphires, and bulls. Therefore, it is believed that the shupibala is the form of Shivalinga in chronological order. Shiva’s magnanimity in the form of the Mahatma and the Mahadeva has been honored in this tale.

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The Five Mantras

The holy number of Shiva is five. One of his most important mantras (Namah Shiva) is composed of five syllables.

It is said that Shiva’s body is composed of five mantras. These are called the Pancha Brahmans. These five mantras have their own names and idols in the form of deities.


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